ECCJ / AEEC Home 2006. September

Japan Energy Conservation
Handbook 2005 / 2006

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1. World Energy Situations

1

 
1.1 Energy resource reserves (2003) 1  
1.2 Primary energy consumption by energy resource 2  
1.3 Primary energy consumption by region 3  
1.4 Trends of Primary Energy Consumption 4  
   (1) Per-capita primary energy consumption 4  
   (2) Primary energy consumption per GDP 4  
   (3) World energy consumption (2002) 4  
1.5 Energy supply in major countries (2002) 5  
   (1) Total primary energy supply (TPES) and percentage shares of energy sources 5  
   (2) Import dependence (2002) 5  
   (3) Percentage sector shares in final energy consumption (2002) 6  
   (4) Total electricity generated and percentage shares of power sources (2002) 6  
1.6 Energy consumption in major countries 7  
   (1) Trend of energy consumption 7  
   (2) Comparison of energy intensities 7  
1.7 World Energy Outlook 8  
   (1) World Oil Demand 8  
   (2) World Oil Supply 9  
1.8 Projections of Energy Demand and Growth Rates 10  
   (1) World 10  
   (2) OECD 10  
   (3) Transition Economies 10  
   (4) Developing Countries 11  
   (5) China (which is included in Developing Countries) 11  
   (6) Increase of World Energy Demand centering on China and the Rest of Asia 11  

2. Global Environmental Trends

12

 
2.1 Climate change and energy consumption 12  
   (1) Transition of deviation from normal surface temperature 12  
   (2) Global energy balance (Index incident solar rays = 100) 12  
   (3) Increase of the carbon dioxide level and changes in fossil energy consumption 13  
   (4) CO2 emissions by country (2003) 14  
   (5) Per-capita CO2 emissions (2003) 14  
2.2 International efforts to counter global warming 15  
   (1) IPCC: Accumulation of scientific knowledge 15  
   (2) UNFCCC: Study of international countermeasures 15  
   (3) IPCC report on global warming 15  
   (4) Influences of Green House Gases on Global Warming (1850-1990) 16  
   (5) History of COPs of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 16  
2.3 Kyoto Protocol coming into effect 20  
2.4 G8 Summit 21  
   (1) Major issues 21  
   (2) An outline of the Gleneagles Plan of Action 21  
2.5 Energy conservation activities of the foreign countries 22  
   (1) Approach to prevention of global warming by the major advanced countries 22  
   (2) Overview of energy conservation measures in the foreign countries 24  
2.6 Japan’s policy to deal with global warming 25  
   (1) Guideline for Measures to Prevent Global Warming 25  
   (2) Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan 25  

3. Energy Situation in Japan

27

 
3.1 Demand of energy sources and GDP 27  
   (1) Trend of energy sources and GDP 27  
   (2) Changes in Energy / GDP elasticity 27  
3.2 Transition of percent distribution of primary energy supply (1955- 2010) 28  
3.3 Final energy consumption by sector 29  
3.4 Outlook of final energy consumption 30  
3.5 Outlook of primary energy supply 30  
3.6 Outlook of CO2 emissions originating from energy use 31  

4. Energy Conservation Policy in Japan

32

 
4.1 Outline of energy conservation policies 32  
   (1) Brief history of energy conservation policy in Japan 32  
   (2) Promotion of energy conservation measures 33  
   (3) Promotion of international energy conservation measures 34  
4.2 The Basic Energy Plan 35  
   (1) Securing the stable energy supply 35  
   (2) Environmental sustainability 35  
   (3) Utilizing the market mechanism 35  
4.3 Law concerning the Rational Use of Energy 36  
   (1) Objective 36  
   (2) Energy defined by the Law 36  
   (3) Basic policies and obligations of energy users 36  
   (4) Measures for factories 36  
   (5) Measures for buildings 40  
   (6) Measures for equipment 41  
   (7) Activities of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization 42  
   (8) Supporting measures and penalties 42  
   (9) Amendment of the law concerning the rational use of energy 42  
   (10) Structure of the “Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy” 46  
4.4 Evaluation Criteria for Factory on rational use of energy 47  
   (1) Standards 47  
   (2) Targets 51  
4.5 Standard and target values for operating equipment 53  
   (1) Air ratios and waste gas temperatures for boilers 53  
   (2) Air ratios for industrial furnace 55  
   (3) Standard and target rates of waste heat recovery for industrial furnaces 56  
   (4) Standard values and target values of furnace wall outer surface temperatures 57  
   (5) Equipment to be improved in power factor 57  
   (6) Target efficiencies of high efficiency motors 58  
4.6 Evaluation Criteria for Building on rational use of energy 59  
   (1) Prevention of heat loss through outer walls, windows, etc. of the buildings 59  
   (2) Efficient use of energy regarding air conditioning equipment 60  
   (3) Efficient use of energy by mechanical ventilation equipment 60  
   (4) Efficient use of energy regarding lighting equipment 61  
   (5) Efficient use of energy regarding hot water supply system 62  
   (6) Efficient use of energy regarding lifting equipment 63  
4.7 Top Runner Program 65  
   (1)  Background 65  
   (2) What is the Top Runner Program? 65  
   (3) List of target designated products in the Top Runner Program 66  
   (4) Expected energy conservation by the target fiscal year 66  
   (5) Merits of Purchasing Top Runner Machinery and Equipment 67  
   (6) Target Achievement Verification Procedures 67  
   (7) Measures to be taken in case the Target Values are not Achieved 68  
   (8) Evaluation Criteria for Machinery and Appliances under Top Runner Program 68  
4.8  Law for Energy Conservation and Recycling Support 69  
   (1) Guidelines for efforts 69  
   (2) The definition of specified projects 69  
   (3) Approval of projects 69  
   (4) Assistance measures 69  
   (5) Specified facilities 69  
   (6) Enforcement of the law 69  
4.9 Financial Supporting Measures 71  
   (1) Official Financial Assistance Programs (2005) 71  
   (2) Tax incentives to promote investment in the energy supply and demandstructure
      reform (2005)
72  
   (3) Certification process for the equipment which promotes reform of energy supply
      and demand structure.
72  
4.10 Commendation Programs to award Energy Conservation Efforts 73  
4.11  Publicity activities 74  
4.12  Energy Audit Program 75  
   (1) Energy audit for small and midsize companies 75  
   (2) Energy Audit for commercial buildings 75  
4.13 The international ENERGY STAR Program 76  
   (1) Product categories 76  
   (2) Scheme 76  

5. Energy Conservation by sector

77

 
5.1 Energy conservation in the industrial sector 77  
   (1) Situation of energy use in the industrial sector 77  
      1) Energy consumption by manufacturing industry 77  
      2) Energy intensities in major industries (IIP) 78  
      3) The ratio of energy costs to variable costs in major industries 79  
      4) Energy conservation equipment investment and crude oil price 80  
      5) Effects of energy conservation and investment payback period 81  
      6) Energy demand analysis for the industrial sector 82  
   (2) Energy conservation measures in the industrial sector 83  
      1) History of energy conservation measures for factories 83  
      2) Relevant legislation 83  
      3) Outline of main voluntary technical action plan by Nippon Keidanren 85  
      4) Measures taken in factories and buildings based on the Energy Conservation Law 89  
5.2 Energy conservation in the residential sector 103  
   (1) Energy consumption per household by energy sources 103  
   (2) Energy consumption per household by usage 104  
   (3) Improvements in energy efficiency of home electric appliances 105  
   (4) Diffusion rate and electricity consumption of home appliances 107  
   (5) Energy conservation measures in the residential sector 108  
5.3 Energy conservation in the commercial sector 110  
   (1) Energy consumption per floor area by energy sources in the commercial buildings 110  
   (2) Energy consumption per floor area by usage in the commercial buildings 111  
   (3) Energy conservation measures for the commercial buildings 112  
   (4) Other energy conservation measures in the commercial sector 114  
   (5) Promotion of commercial building energy management system (BEMS) 115  
   (6) Promotion of ESCO Business 116  
5.4 Energy conservation in the transportation sector 118  
   (1) Energy consumption by type of transport 118  
   (2) Energy consumption and transportation volume by type of transport (FY 2003) 119  
   (3) Energy intensity by type of transport (FY 2003) 120  
   (4) Improvements in energy efficiency of vehicles 121  
   (5) Measures to improve fuel efficiency of automobiles 122  
   (6) Energy conservation measures in the transportation sector 123  
5.5 Reinforcement of Energy Conservation Measures in Each Sector 125  
   (1) Background 125  
   (2) Additional Measures and Expected Effect 125  

6. Related Organization

126

 
6.1 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) 126  
   (1) Organization of METI 126  
   (2) Organization of Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE) 127  
6.2 The Energy Conservation Center, Japan (ECCJ) 128  
   (1) Organization of ECCJ 128  
   (2) About ECCJ 129  

Reference

130

 


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