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Chapter 1 Q&A to understand the Management Standard based on Laws
Concerning Rational Use of Energy

Q: Explain the legal position of the Decision Standard regulating the Management Standard based on the Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy.
A: Article 4 of the Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy states, “The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry shall establish and announce officially energy provisions of the Decision Standard towards managers operating factories using energy to execute appropriate and effective measures to rationalize the use of energy in factories (production lines and related buildings, etc.).”.

This Decision Standard for Managers Concerning the Rational Use of Energy (Manager’s Decision Standard), demands the managers to set management standards. The Manager’s Decision Standards are officially announced under Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy, and managers are required to set management standards concerning facilities using energy.

In connection with this, Article 3 of the Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy demands, with the intent to integrate rationalization of energy used in factories, for the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry to establish and announce basic policies concerning rationalization of energy use (Basic Policies). The basic policies demand the managers to create an energy management structure and set management standards.

Namely, managers have the obligation to set management standards for facilities using energy, and also, management standards concerning creating an energy management structure.

Q: How are the Standard Section and Goal Section of the Managers’ Decision Standard classified?
A: The first clause of the Managers’ Decision Standard includes the standard section and the second clause includes the goal section. Provisions concerning preparation of management standard, execution etc. are included in the Standard Section. Provisions effective to all energy management designated factories are described in this section.

The goal section requires factories to strive to cut down the energy consumption unit by an annual average of 1% or more in a medium term, and take measures to realize goals set in the goal section within the technological and financial limits.

Type 2 Energy Management Designated Factories (i.e. production lines and buildings) shall first of all set and execute management standards regulated in the Standard Section. Thus, this Management Standard Preparation Guide only refers to the Standard Section.

Q: What is a management standard? Is there a difference with general facility management, guide lines or manuals for building management?
A: A Management Standard determines factors concerning production that shall be managed to guarantee product quality, secure stable production, effectively produce and continue producing low prime cost products. Building management also requires (includes offices, hospitals, department stores hotels etc.) to determine factors that shall be maintained and managed to secure a safe and sound environment for the residents; for example, air conditioning facilities and other building facility operation.

Management Standards and criteria are guidelines to show what shall be followed. The process of scientifically creating and consolidating these standards is referred to as standardization.

Thus, they are no different from any management standard document or manual prepared in the past.

Generally, each office has its own word synonymous to “standard”, such as “specification”, “criterion”, “regulation”, “entry”, “summery”, “manual”, or “guide”. Thus, “Standard” shall be the general term referred to describe the above terms.

Q: Offices from what area are required to set management standards based on the Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy?
A: All managers using energy are required to set management standards to
rationalize use of energy required by the managers’ decision standards established under the Law Concerning Rational Use of Energy.

Namely, not only factory managers, but also building (including offices, hospitals and department stores) managers are required to set management standards to promote rational use of energy regardless of the amount of energy consumption.

All managers shall follow the decision standard under the Law Concerning Rational Use of Energy, regardless of amount of energy consumed, size of the factory or building. Therefore, all managers are obligated to understand the general flow of energy in the factory or building, and grasp the trend in energy use by each process and each main facility to execute fine-grained energy management.

Contents of required management standards are all described in the “Managers’ Decision Standard Concerning Rationalization of Energy Use in Factories” (Managers’ Decision Standard) based on the Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy.

Q: Explain the legal position of the Decision Standard regulating the Management Standard based on the Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy.
A: All managers shall create management standard manuals for the buildings and factories that they manage, and execute energy management according to the manuals to rationalize use of energy.

More specifically, for all facilities required to set management standard concerning energy consumption of each office (building, factory etc.) by the manual;
1. Target values shall be set for management, and operation of facilities shall be managed.
2. Periodically measure and record operation management items important concerning energy conservation of facilities.
3. Periodically carry out maintenance and inspection for important items concerning energy conservation of facilities.
4. Incase of installing a new facility, set adoption provisions from the view point of energy conservation, and strictly follow them.

Thus, managers of factories and buildings shall create a management organization system to set management standards for each facility, execute, review, and continually improve and sustain the standards.

Q: Are the “Standard Values” required to be managed regulated in the decision standard when creating the management standard?
A: The law requires five important provisions concerning conservation of energy listed below to be strictly followed. Other Standard values shall be determined according to the energy usage status of the factory, contents of facilities and office conditions.

The following five provisions have standard values set legally in the standard section of the factory decision standard.

1. Standard air ratio of the boiler and industrial furnace.
(1. Rationalization of burning fuel (1) Management of burning fuel)
2. Outer surface temperature of industrial furnace.
(3. Prevention of heat loss by radiation, conduction etc. (1) Standard for insulation)
3. Standard exhaust temperature of boiler
(4. Recycle use of waste heat (1) Standard for the recycled use of waste heat)
4. Standard Recovery Rate of waste heat
(4. Recycle use of waste heat (1) Standard for the recycled use of waste heat)
5. Power factor of the power receiving end
(6. Prevention of electricity loss by resistance etc. (1) Management of substation facility and power distribution facility)

Standard values of the 5 provisions listed above are classified according to facility size and type ranks. Standard values are indicated in the decision standards.

There are approximately 60 provisions set by the management standard in the managers’ decision standard. Standard values of the management standard shall be determined by the managers.

This is the biggest difference with setting management standard values of other environmental, safety etc. values.

Q: Should the management standard for energy conservation be independently prepared from other types of standards?
A: Originality is required. Factories and buildings have many environment-related regulations like the air pollution prevention law and water pollution prevention laws, labor safety hygienic law, fire prevention law, electricity business law, high-pressure gas security law, and criteria and standards based on the environmental manuals, quality control management, facility management, operation management and etc. that regulate provisions required for management.

Each criterion, regulation and standard has its own purpose, contents and parts for intensive management; therefore, it is impertinent to integrate management standards of energy to these standards. An independent management standard for the purpose of energy management to promote energy conservation is indispensable.

Q: Can the procedural documents of the management standards prepared based on the existing standards of facility management etc. be applied correspondingly?
A: Yes, Procedural documents for measurement, recording, maintenance and inspection based on existing standards are not required to be prepared.

As a matter of fact, there are many documents with almost identical management provisions, and in many cases, standard values of energy management are applied directly from the manufacturing process specifications and standards for quality control. For these parts, application of other standards and specifications for the management standard is permissible.

In case of application, an energy management standard that shall be the base of application must exist; moreover, the applied section must be clearly indicated (i.e. “This provision is an application of Regulation XX, Section XX”), and describe its relation to the existing regulation and standard structure exercised by the building or factory.

A double implementation is not necessary, if measurement, recording, etc. implemented based on other existing standards and regulations, are measures required to implement according to the decision standard of the Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy. However, some conventional standards do not include measurement and recording provisions that are required by management provisions important in energy conservation. Read the contents of the decision standard carefully to consider adding measurement management provisions and review management period.

Q: Are management standards set and managed for all facilities using energy?
A: Yes, standards are prepared and managed for all building and factory facilities. However, management standards may be unified among facilities if pertinent.

First, list up facilities that are using energy in a self-managed factory, based on intensive management, and select appropriate facilities to cover about 80% of the factory’s energy consumption. Sequentially set standards and operate/implement.

In reality, many types of facilities exist in buildings and factories, and capacities and usage are diverse among factories of different size and industries. Energy management of these facilities shall be carried out appropriately to reflecting the importance of energy conservation and the status quo of the factory.

Among objects of setting management standards, abridgement and simplification are permissible for the following facilities:
1. Facilities using energy bellow a certain amount.
2. Facilities with no changes in operation.
3. Facilities of less importance in production.

Q: Are there designated formats for preparing a management standard?
A: No. Prepare by referring to the management standard documents of the establishment.

There are no strict requirements for contents or format in the management standard. However, the management standard shall be easy to use in operation management for facilities actually being used, and capable of handing it down in case of organization structure modification.

The most important is that management standards are strictly followed. To reflect this, the decision standards of Laws Concerning Rational Use of Energy do not set detailed requirements to allow the managers to make important decisions. Therefore, it is required to establish standards that are not formal, but practical in use. Moreover, set standards shall be strictly followed and implemented. If problems arise (i.e. revision made in law), reviewing the standard and modifying it will be necessary. It is, therefore, also important to establish a management system where abiding and modifying can be carried out simultaneously at all times.

Q: What are some of the specific contents of provisions required to be included in the management standard?
A: The energy saving management standards refers to the manuals that describe important management matters to save energy for facility operation. Managers can arbitrarily create the items required for energy management in any format.

For each facility where energy is used, four provisions , operation management, measurement/record, maintenance and inspection, and provisions for building a new facility must be incorporated without any omission.

Q: If the facility only uses electricity, is it only necessary to set management standards for the provisions concerning electricity (provisions 6 & 7) out of the 7 provisions included in the managers’ decision standard?

A: No. Even if electricity is the only source of energy, it is still required to set management standards for related issues such as heating, cooling and radiation loss.

For example, preventative measures are obviously required for radiation loss by electric furnaces and plastic injection molding machines.

The relationship of facilities using energy generally lie astride the 7 provisions. Study them carefully when setting the management standards.

Q: What are some of the specific points on management, measurement/recording, and maintenance and inspection?
1. Concerning management
1) Include a description of characteristics of each energy related facility, and indicate operation and management points to minimize energy used according to its functions. It is especially important to set the management standard values by referring to data of facility performance inspection and test operation.
As shown in the table bellow, the management target value of air ratio of a factory boiler was set by referring to the data taken after test operation adjustment during periodical inspection.
2) It is permissible to unite contents of description if multiple facilities of the same type exist; however, if there are partial differences in management procedures, each of such parts must be described separately.
3) Refer to the parts that the factory is related from the provisions indicated in the decision standard, and include them to the management standard in a form that strictly follows the decision standard.
4) Set target values and management values for especially important management provisions. (For provisions with a standard value set for the decision standard, set the value as the minimum standard value to be followed.)
5) For automated control and computer control, describe the concept and characteristics of the control and indicate target control value.

2. Concerning measurement and recording
1) Carry out periodical measurement and recording for provisions with set target value and management value. Create a column on the measurement/recording note book, to clearly indicate target value and management value per measured provision. Also, create a column to write down measured value per set period (i.e. once/hour, once/day etc.) and compare measured value with target value and management value. Create a column to write in measures for provisions with measured value that are out of the range of management value.
2) For intensive management provisions of automated control and computer control, output measured value per fixed period of time.

3. Maintenance and Inspection
1) To avoid break down and degradation of facility performance (Especially characteristic degradation due to energy conservation), clearly indicate points and procedure of maintenance and inspection, and set period (i.e. once/week, once/ month, once/year etc.) to carry out periodical maintenance and inspection.
2) Record date of execution, contents and results of maintenance, inspection and repair.

Q: What are the important points to be careful when setting the management standard.
1. Important points when setting management standard
It is difficult to create a perfect management standard right from the beginning. Unreasonable settings will not be followed. A management standard would not mean anything if not obeyed. It is important that the standards are useful, and not merely formal. Follow the standards strictly, and review them periodically to revise the standard if problems arise. The management standard for energy conservation is not only for the energy managers to learn and understand, but also for members of any other department.

2. Another important role of the energy management standard
The management standard is considered as the manual that describes almost all energy management activities carried out in a factory. Therefore, the energy management standard is also used as a text material for new recruits, reference material in times of replacement of energy managers and those in charge of energy, and to hand down the factory’s original energy technology.

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